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I consider myself a fair and objective person. As a scientist I am trained to present facts devoid of personal prejudices and/or prior experience. Therefore, I cannot be held accountable for the horrible truth about deceptive females and dishonest signals I am about to tell.
How did this come to pass? Well, just the other night I was taking out the garbage when I saw a flickering across the yard. I knew it right away: fireflies!Yes, this brief account is about deceptive, exploitative female fireflies.
A little known fact is that many firefly species have their own unique pattern of flashing along with their own flight behavior. These set paths and lighting sequences are shared amongst individuals within the species, and are used as an important cue in mate finding. Starting at dusk, male fireflies soar through the air on warm summer evenings and announce their presence with a patterned flash. From a resting site on vegetation, females of the same species are genetically programmed to respond after a certain time interval with their own signal, which tells the male that she is an available match and ready to mate. Without shame, females in another genus can respond to males at the correct interval and with the right signal. If she successfully lures in a male, she will grab him, kill him and proceed to eat him! This is the story of two particular genera of fireflies called Photinus and Photuris.
You might ask yourself, how does a dishonest signal that kills an unsuspecting receiver perpetuate in the natural world? That’s a great question! A current hypothesis to explain the maintenance of this behavior is called Exploitation Theory. It goes like this: in order for males to reproduce and pass on their genes, they must respond to female signals. Males that avoid responding to female signals for “fear” of exploitative females might live longer, but would probably also ignore females of their own species and leave few or no descendants to carry on this cautious behavior. Therefore, males that respond to female signals are, on average, more successful and leave behind more offspring. As with most behaviors in the ecological world, the benefits of a behavior must outweigh the costs.
So – next time you’re out at dusk and see fireflies lighting up your yard, count the patterns you see and whether males get a date, or go out as dinner!
Fun Fact: Light production in fireflies is the result of an enzymatic reaction, and is between 92 and 100% efficient. This means that light is generated with little or no heat as a by-product. Aptly named, this “cold light” is compared to incandescent lamps, which are only about 10 % efficient due to excessive amounts of heat.
Keep any eye out for fireflies as you celebrate Independence Day this weekend!
The debate still stands as to why pesky insects swarm your light fixtures, whether inside or out. The two most popular theories include safety reasons and navigational purposes.
Regardless of which theory they’re flying by, they are not as mindless as we perceive them to be.
Safety: Flying insects which are attracted to light fixtures are thought to be avoiding dangerous encounters. Whether your fixtures are inside your home or outdoors, they tend to be at higher altitudes than the insects are used to flying. This gives the insects a chance to seek higher ground and greater protection against predators.
Navigation: Many flying insects are known to travel north, thus needing to keep the light source on their right side and at a distance to stay on track. When you flick on your deck lights during a family barbecue, the insects become confused. The insects will then continuously circle the light source in attempts to keep it on a specific side of their body.
Now you know! Even though these pesky insects bother you while you’re trying to enjoy a beautiful summer evening, they may just be trying to stay safe or find their way home.
We all know how pesky mosquitoes can be, and how uncomfortable we become when they are present. The spring and summer season brings not only warmer temperatures, but greater moisture and precipitation. With the recent spring rain having followed such a snowy winter, we are noticing high levels of mosquito activity very early in the summer season. In addition to the discomfort we endure from these pests’ itchy bites, mosquitoes represent a human health risk with their ability to spread various diseases including West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis.
Mosquitoes lay their eggs and spend most of their life cycle in and around moist areas. Draining buckets, birdbaths, or other potential basins for stagnant water, as well as sealing entryways into the home with proper screening will help to reduce the severity of mosquito activity in and around your home. At JP McHale Pest Management, we offer our Vector Intervention Program, which targets disease-carrying mosquitoes as well as ticks and rodents capable of infecting humans with Lyme Disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Ehrlichiosis, Hantavirus and more. Any family that has small children or pets could greatly benefit from this program which will help in the prevention of itchy bites and harmful diseases. Make sure you take proper action to keep yourself healthy and comfortable throughout the summer months!
I have long admired the outdoor scenery that surrounds the office of JP McHale Pest Management. Impressive rock formations that allude to our valley’s glacial history are evident all around. To compliment this topography are large oak trees representing several different species, sassafras, maples, and even a few quaking aspens. The forage produced by these trees provide for chipmunks and squirrels, of which we have the black variety, and a number of bird species. A nearby right of way yields ecological contrast, with low growing grasses and herbs shifting the dominant vegetation from forest to meadow. This week we were visited by a splendid product of the nearby forest – a Luna Moth.
The Luna Moth is one of the largest moths present in the northeast. This species can produce two generations per year, with the first adults emerging in May and the second generation arriving around August. Over its entire range in the US and Canada, caterpillars produced by this species can feed on a number of host plants, including birch, alder, persimmon, sweetgum, hickory, walnut or sumac. Locally, however, Luna moth caterpillars probably specialize on one host plant, and will feed gregariously for the first two-to-three of five developmental stages.
After the caterpillar has consumed enough foliage, it will form a cocoon where metamorphosis will take place. For the next two weeks the caterpillar will undergo changes and eventually emerge as a moth with crinkled, soft wings. Adult moths find a vertical surface where they stand and pump hemolymph (insect blood-like circulatory fluid) through veins to inflate or expand their wings. After approximately two hours the moth will be ready to fly.
Adult Luna moths do not feed, rest on vertical surfaces during the day, and live for approximately one week. At night, Luna moths are attracted to lights and can damage their wings or expend all their energy in this pursuit. This has led many scientists to recommend turning off outside lights unless they are absolutely necessary, as this attractive nuisance reduces the mating potential for moths and other insects.
As you can see from the pictures, our visitor was a male Luna moth. Moths and other insects communicate with volatile chemical pheromones, which are typically emitted by females and received by males. For many insect species, males can be differentiated externally from females by the shape of the antennae. Plumose or feathery antennae are often indicative of a male, as this structure increases the surface area and number of receptors that can be used to locate females. Keep an eye out this summer for Luna moths and other brilliant creatures of our northeast forest!
Alas, spring is here! After a long, cold winter followed by March and April rains, the world is turning green and flowers are blooming. Birds are singing and, oh yes, the bees (and our phones) are buzzing. For homeowners, spring is an epic battle against invading hoards of insects – armed and ready to take up residence in our homes. Lingering problems with carpet beetles and clothes moths become evident, while termites and ants swarm in huge numbers. Meanwhile, as the weather warms up outside, carpenter bees emerge from their overwintering sites and make ready for a new year.
Male Carpenter Bee; Photo Credit: Marvin Smith
The eastern carpenter bee is a robust insect measuring up to one inch in length. In coloration and size they resemble bumble bees, but have a shiny black abdomen with few yellow hairs. Carpenter bees drink nectar and are considered important pollinators of open-faced flowers. Males are aggressive toward approaching objects – including humans – and are distinguished from females by a yellow patch on their face. Unlike females, the male carpenter bee is incapable of stinging. Therefore, problems with carpenter bees are most often associated with their propensity to form nests in structural or decorative softwood around homes.
Picture Credit: FloridaBugs.cm
Female carpenter bees bore a perfectly round hole into wooden shakes, eves, porch ceilings, window sills, beams, rafters, fences doors, and lawn furniture. After excavating a depth equal to her body length, she will make a 90 degree turn and continue boring with the grain of the wood. The resulting gallery is on average four to six inches in length. Using wood shavings and oral secretions, a mated female will partition individual cells in the gallery and place an egg provisioned with a pollen/nectar pellet inside. In the summer, a new generation of bees will emerge, feed, and then overwinter in their birth nest. At no time do carpenter bees eat wood; they simply excavate tunnels for nest construction.
Because the eastern carpenter bee is faithful to its birth nest, this can result in significant damage when bees return to the same site year after year. Bees will either extend the length of current galleries, or create new ones in the same piece of wood or structure. Complex galleries can extend up to ten feet in length, and reduce the structural integrity of wood. In some cases, woodpeckers will attack infested wood to feed on the larvae. This compounds the damage imposed by bees and often requires replacement of the building material.
What can you do? Exposed bare wood, particularly in sunny areas, is susceptible to carpenter bee attack. Staining and painting will make wood less attractive to carpenter bees. If a piece of wood is continually attacked, consider installing screening or flashing on the wood, and then painting. Homeowners can also place a highly acceptable piece of bare wood somewhere on the property to attract bees and keep them away from more valuable pieces. Ideally, this wood should be placed in a sunny spot with the grain of the wood parallel to the ground.
What can we do? As certified applicators, we use low-risk products with long residual to eliminate existing bees and prevent new adults from emerging. We make recommendations about how and when to plug up holes to prevent future infestations. In collaboration with our EnviroCare division, we can preclude infestations using exclusionary tactics. Our knowledge of bee biology and behavior allows for the strategic placement of flashing to inhibit female nesting. Contact us today if you have or suspect carpenter bees!
This summer’s news has been riddled with stories of bed bug infestations around the New York area yet this time of the year the pest that has most experts worried about stink bugs. While they do not cause notable physical harm, they can destroy crops, smell when crushed and they will find a way to get into your home. Stink bugs (aka Western Conifer Seed Bug), like other pests, are going to find refuge from the cold harsh climate of the winter season…and your home is a perfect place. The significant difference is that stink bugs usually try and start finding a warmer spot about a month earlier than other bugs. This means that as the temperature drops during late September and October the amount of stink bug complaints will be on the rise. If you spot a stink bug make sure u do not commit the cardinal sin of crushing them. They release a foul odor, hence the name “stink bug,” therefore, one should gentle pick the insect up with a piece of paper of some tissue like substance (paper towel, toilet tissue, etc…), or vacuum them up. Stink bugs have a very similar lifestyle to Lady Bugs as well, the most common room that you will find these bugs are in the bathrooms.
Mosquitoes will favor certain clothes when choosing who to bite. An article from Ecouterre.com states that mosquitoes love black leggings! Many women love to wear them either for comfort or fashion, but you are more likely to get bit from a mosquito if you do so! The article suggests to wear light or bright colored heavy clothes to protect yourself. A light colored sweatshirt and pale-wash jeans would be a good choice if you are spending time outside. Here are some other tips to follow if you want to stay mosquito free:
Replace/repair broken screens
Dispose of tin cans, plastic containers, ceramic pots or similar outdoor items that hold water
Make holes in the bottoms of recycling containers that are kept outside
Clean clogged rain gutters and make sure they continue to work properly
Turn over wheelbarrows and wading pools when not in use to prevent water build up
Change water in bird baths often
Clear vegetation and debris from edges of ponds
Clean chlorinated swimming pools, outdoor saunas and hot tubs a few times a month
Drain water from pool covers
Use landscaping materials to eliminate low spots where standing water accumulates.
Today the NY Post announced that a 61-year-old man has been hospitalized and was diagnosed with having the West Nile Virus. A woman in Long Island had contracted the virus last month, but this is the first case in New York City. Its is very important to protect yourself from mosquitoes. Follow these simple tips to stay mosquito free.